Error message

  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc:3495) in drupal_send_headers() (line 1228 of /home/arisitasrg578/public_html/includes/bootstrap.inc).

SOCIOLOGY: MASTERS 5033S: Page 4 of 5

Course Alias: 
Art and the Sociology of Popular Culture

 Part 4: The Sounds of Music (Amrita Pande, Sumangala Damodaran, Ari Sitas)

 4.1 Traditions of the National and Beyond: From Verdi to Carnatic/Hindustani

Revivals and Tagore

The Opera’s link to “the” political needs little comment from Mozart’s, The Magic Flute to Verdi’s, Nabucco and Aida. The Egyptian “exotic” of Aida on the one hand and of the Babylonian “exotic” of Nabucco allowed Verdi to speak in subtle ways of Italian unification and liberation. But the orientalism of both texts is what animates most post-colonial work starting with Edward Said’s discussion of Aida in Culture and Imperialism. Music has had a peculiar relationship with Africa and the Orient- from the days of grand opera to Gilbert and Sullivan’s Mikado to the serious work of Kevin Volans’ Rimbaud in Ethiopia work and to Philip Glass’s Satyagraha. What has always remained invisible has been the relationship between anti-colonial nationalist movements and music. The choice of India as a case-study is because part of the response involved a revival and emphasis of the purity of the ragas of Hindustani and Carnatic music which became emblematic of integrity and also, its redrafting using elements beyond the ancient in Tagore’s work which defined the relationship between word, tonality and composition.

 4.2 Resistance and Music in India and South Africa

The rise of resistance and mobilisation in India and South Africa provides a powerful context for the relationship between music, words and innovation. Thanks to Sumangala Damodaran’s work on the IPTA tradition in India (Songs of Resistance 2011- Tulika, Press, Delhi), we have both an analytical and performative scale on the mutations that occurred and the political debates around the music, its authenticity and prowess. Influences from the Soviet Union and from other liberation struggles everywhere intermingle with the desire of poets to write lyrics and of composers to write music appropriate for the mobilised people. There is no parallel text yet, on the South African mobilisations but at least one song from India travelled to be sung in the Defiance campaigns. The musicological work of Veit Erlman and David Coplan has given some hints of the “political” in music- but the real explosion of it in South Africa is 20 years later. But the reasons why these are being revived in both countries in the 2000s has to be understood with a degree of subtlety.

 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 Here there is a choice once more: one current will explore The Slave Sublime? Afro-American and the Trans-Atlantic; the other will explore Radio Mali: The Arc of the Blues and the Heer. The first follows the music that slaves and freed slaves from Africa created to cope and to transform their horrendous experience. Following Gilroy’s enticing formulation of the “Slave Sublime” in his Black Atlantic but also extending it to Havana and to Bahia for example, we come to understand a music of profound desire and passion. Here, one of the most regrettable moments was Adorno’s take on Jazz as the aesthetic language of subordination and castration. We take the blues and jazz to their logical conclusion with an in-depth look at the revolutionary impact of John Coltrane and the African-American avant-garde and their immediate crossing over to Johannesburg, Bahia and Delhi. But there is a choice of looking at Mali as the place where the blues meets the heer (the voicings of the music of eastern lamentation that conjoins everything from the Sufi musics of the East to Flamenco in Southern Europe. And how works like Gerhard Kubik’s (1999). Africa and the Blues. (Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi) tells only 50% of the story. There is in the music of a Diabate, Toure and many others which if it will speak of new aesthetic constellations that resonate everywhere.

(The Mikado- Gilbert and Sullivan) 

 The Musical

  • Ibn Khaldun, The Craft of Singing (Available on Line)
  • Edward Said, The Imperial Spectacle, Grand Street, 1987
  • Paul Robinson- Is Aida an Orientalist Opera?-Cambridge Opera Journal
  • Theodor Adorno, Perennial Fashion-Jazz in Prisms, London: Garden City Press
  • Alan Beckett articles of the 1960s in the New Left Review
  • Paul Gilroy,(1991) The Black Atlantic, p.79-111
  • Kofsky-Black Nationalism and Music
  • Sumangala Damodaran, “The Radical Impulse” from her Manuscript of the Neglected Tradition andDamodaran, Sumangala (2008): Protest Through Music , No. 588, August  
  •  Donaldson,  Rachel Clare (2011): MUSIC FOR THE PEOPLE: THE FOLK MUSIC REVIVAL AND AMERICAN IDENTITY, 1930-1970, Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Vanderbilt University.
  •  Gerhard Kubik (1999). Africa and the Blues.(Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi)

(John Coltrane, 1967)

Discography

  • Rabindarath Tagore,
  • Giuseppe Verdi, Aida, slave song from Nabucco
  • Gilbert and Sullivan, Mikado
  • Phillip Glass Satyagraha
  • Kevin Volans, Rimbaud
  • MikisTheodorakis, The Canto General, (An Oratorio, words Pablo Neruda) either the studio 1974 version, Paris or the Piraeus live recording, 1975.
  • La Caita, Lament from Vengo, You Tube
  • Sabicas, Festival Gitana
  • Ravi Shankar, IPTA Film recordings Jaaga Desh Hamaara
  • Hemanga Biswas,  Selam Chacha
  • Cheeno Arab Hamaara , clip from Hindi film ‘Woh Subah Aayegi’
  • Sumangala Damodaran (2011), Somgs of Protest, Delhi, EMI
  • Iqbal Bano , Sings Faiz
  • Madhan Gopal Singh, Sufi Songs
  • Shakti (1976) A Handful of Beauty and Natural Elements
  • John Coltrane, Giant Steps
  • Don Cherry, (with Walcott and Vasconcellos)-Codona,
  • Charlie Mingus, New Tijuana Moods,
  • Music Liberation Orchestra, Music Liberation Orchestra
  • Ali FarkaToure- White Album
  • ToumaniDiabate, Mande Variations
  • Mankuku Winston Ngozi, Yakhal’Inkomo
  • Zim Ngqawana, Best of
  • Junction Avenue Theatre Company- Songs from the Plays
  • Virginia Rodrigues, Negra, Nos
  • The Buena Vista Social Club, Songs
  • The Insurrections Project, Insurrections