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ESSAY ONE: Page 9 of 9

image: 
Year: 
1983
Description: 

At around 5 o’clock each morning, when the fruit bats cease their ringing, and all creatures that scuttle about in the night making a din, become quiet on this coastline, a new intensive *screeching starts. It cuts the dawn’s lull to shreds. It is the voice of the lourie, the Gwala-Gwala Bird. Its name, I am told, originates from these shrieks, of horror. From the Nkandla forests to Durban’s coastline, from Khosi Bay to Port Edward, the din starts.

Body: 

FOOTNOTES

1. From M.W. Swanson (ed) The Views of Mahlati; Writings of A.W.G.

Champion a Black South African, Pietermaritzburg, 1982, p. 162

2. cf. A. Smith, Wealth of nations, (ed) A. Skinner, Harmondsworth, 1972, p. 515

3. For Marx’s critique of Malthus, cf. Grundrisse, Harmondsworth, 2974, pp. 564-

608, and Ricardo in idid, 559 ff. See also Theories of Surplus Value, Vol. 1, New

York, 1974

4. See K. Marx, Capital, Vol. 1, New York, 1974, pp. 628 ff. See also P.M. Sweezy,

The Theory of Capitalist Development, New York/London, 1956, p. 75-94

5. c. G.D.H. Cole, History of Socialist Thought, Vol. 1-2, London, 1964; also E.

Mandel, The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx, London, 1975

6. See on this process, C. Palloix, ‘From Fordism to Neo-Fordism”, in CSE (eds)

The Labour Process and Class Strategies, London, 1976; Also useful is M.

Aglietta’s, The Theory of Capitalist Regulation, The U.S. Experience, London,

1977

7. On the ‘affluent worker’ see J. Golthorpe, et al, The Affluent Worker, London,

1969; although formulated at the turn of the century by Sombart and Michels,

this problematic finds a new resonance in the Frankfurt School, cf. m. Jay, The

Dialectical Imagination, London, 1974

8. cf. D Brody, “The Rise and Decline of Welfare Capitalism”, and “The Emergence

of Mass-production Unionism” in his Workers in Industrial America, New York/Oxford, 1980, pp. 48-119

9. J. Habermas, Theory and Practice, London, 1977, p. 119-20

10. Such a notion is at the centre of Adam Smith’s treatise and gains momentum and

crudification as the years roll on. From Ayn Rand to the economics of Milton

Friedman and W.W. Rostow

11. See, W.W. Rostow’s The Stages of Economic Growth, New York, 1972; also

S.N. Eisenstadt, Modernisation, Protest and Change, Englewood Cliffs, 1966; on

the Marxist side, cf. M. Aglietta, op cit, and B. Warren’s, Imperialism, the Pioneer

of Capitalism, London, 1978

12. A similar sentiment under a different context is E.P. Thompson’s essay, “The

Peculiarities of the English” in Poverty of Theory, London, 1978. See also

T. Lane, The Union Makes Us Strong, Essex, 1974

13. On capital accumulation in South Africa, cf. M. Legassic, Capital Accumulation

and Violence, in Economy and Society, vol. 3, no, 3 1974. Useful too is G,.

Bloch’s, “The Development of Manufacturing Industry in South Africa”, M.A.

Thesis, Cape Town University, 1980

14. C.S.S. (Central Statistical Services), 1980 Census Report 02.80.03

15. Department of Statistics, Manufacturing Census 1976, Report 10.21.33

16. ibid.

17. ibid.

18. J. Stanwix: ‘A Study of the Natal Regional Economy’ for the Natal Town and

Regional Planning commission, 1983

19. cf. J.M. Osborn, A Valiant Harvest: The History of the Sugar Industry’,

Pietermaritzburg, 1942

20. J.P.N. Bently, ‘Mill – A Century of Sugar Milling’, Condenser, December 1954,

p.19

21. J Stanwix, op cit.

22. M.Katzen, Industry in Greater Durban, Town and Regional Planning Report, Vol.

2, 1951, Chapter 1

23. H Houghton and J. Dagut, Source Material on the South African Economy,

Vol. 1, Capetown, 1964

24. cf. C.S. Richards, The Iron & Steel Industry of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1940

25. cf. A. Sitas ‘African Worker Responses on the East Rand with Changes in the

Metal Industry’, Ph.D. thesis, Witwatersrand University, Johannesburg, 1984,

Chapter 2

26. G. Bloch, The Development of Manufacturing …, op cit, p. 79

27. G Bloch, op cit; cf. also A. Sitas, ‘African Worker Responses’, op cit,

Chapter 2

28. Department of Statistics, Gross Geographic Product at Factor Incomes by

Magisterial District, 1975, Table 2

29. cf. m. Katzen, Industry in Grater Durban, part I, op cit, p. 72/3

30. ibid, 78 ff.

31. Periodization from ibid.

32. For definitions of ‘concentration’, ‘centralisation’ and ‘monopoly of capital’ cf. P.M.

Sweezy, Capitalist Development, op cit.

33. Community and Labour Relations Research Group, Sociology Department, Natal

University, Durban, (hitherto, C.L.R.R.G), Discussion 1 & 2, 1983/84.

34. cf. Katzen, op cit.

35. ibid.

36. ibid, p. 20.

37. ibid, p. 25.

38. For such calculations and their history, cf. H.L. Watts, ‘The Poverty datum Line in

Six Selected Urban Areas’, C.A.S.S., Durban, 1967; see also H.L. Kuper, et al

‘Durban: A study of its Racial Ecology’, University of Natal, Durban, 1961

39. cf. H.G. Ringrose, Teade Unions in Natal, Cape Town 1951; also, Gitsham’s and

Trembath’s; A First Account of Labour Oganisation in South Africa, Durban 1926

40. On the implications of ‘jobbing production’, cf. E. Webster, The LABOUR Process

and Forms of Workplace Organisation in South African Foundries;, Pd.D. Thesis

Witwatersrand University 1983; cf. also A Sitas, ‘African Workers Responses; op

cit, Chapter 2

41. F Ginwala, “Class Consciousness and Control: Indian South Africans 1980-

1946’, Ph.D Thesis, Oxford University, 1974, provides a brief and useful outline.

42. Natal Mercury, 28/4/1859

43 Natal Mercury, 22/11/1860

44. cf. Y.S. Meer, et al, Documents of Indentured Labour, Durban, 1976. On the

strike cf. M. Tayal’s ‘The 1913 Natal Indian Strike’, History Workshop paper,

Witwatersrand University 1984

45. On this, cf. S. Bobat, and D. Bonnin, ‘Women and Natal’s Clothing Industry’,

1930s-1950s’, Natal University, Industrial Sociology Project, 1983. Also,

interview with H Bolton, 1984

46. See on this Bobat and Bonnin op cit.

47. Katzen, op cit, p. 34

48. Report on the Department of labour, U.G. 11/1936, p. 78

49 Katzen, op cit, p. 35

50. ibid, p. 38

51. ibid.

52. ibid.

53. On migrancy and Durban, cf. J.R. Burrows, “Natal’s Labour Resources and

Industry in Greater Durban”, M.A. Thesis Natal University, Durban, 1959

54. cf. P. Maylam, ‘Twentieth Century Durban: Thoughts on its Regional Specificity,

and Some Reflections on a Recent Workshop’, History Workshop paper,

Witwatersrand University, 1984. But also the Durban History Workshop paper by

P Maylam: “Shackled by the Contradictions: The municipal response to African

urbanization in Durban, c. 1920-2950”

55. cf. L. Torr, ‘The Durban City Council and Urban Land Use 1923-1933 in the

Founding of Lamont’, in History Workshop, Durban, 1984; J Mackenzie, African

Women and the Urbanization Process in Durban, c. 1920-1949, in ibid

56. cf. M.W. Swanson, ‘The Rise of Clermont’; P. Edwards, ‘Living on the ‘smell of an

oilrag’: African Life in Cato Manor Farm in the late 1940s’; D.W.M. Edley,

‘Africans in Durban During the Great Depression 1929-1933’, History Workshop,

op cit; also G. Maasdorp, & A.S.B. Humphreys (eds) From Shantytown to

Township, Cape Town, 1975

57. P.L. Wickins, The I.C.U. of Africa, Cape Town, 1974; see also, P, Le Hause’s

‘Ematsheni’, History Workshop, op cit

58. D hemson, ‘Class Consciousness and Migrant Workers: Dock Workers of

Durban’, Ph.D. Warwich University, 1979

59. cf. Luckhardt & Wall, Organise or Starve, London, 1980, Chapter 2; on

‘parlallelism’ cf. Ringrose, Trade Union in Natal, op cit

60. cf. Hemson op cit; also, P. Tichman, ‘Worker Resistance in Durban in the 1940s

and 1950s’ History workshop, op cit

61. cf. Lockhardt & Wall, op cit, Hemson and Tichman, op cit; Also Khumalo,

Interview, 1983

62. E. Webster, ‘The Indian vs. Zulu riots in Natal’ in P. Bonner 9ed), African Studies

Institute Seminar Papers, Johannesburg, 1977

63. cf. Tichman, op cit

64. Natal Regional Survey: The African factory Worker, Cape Town, 1950, p. 8

65. On the relocation see Maasdorp & Humphreys, op cit, on the campaign of the

1950s/60s, cf. Luckhardt & Wall, op cit; also Interviews, with Khanyile and

Khumalo, 1983

66. See the I.I.E.’s Durban Strikes, Durban, 1974

67. In Y.S. Meer et al (ed) Documents, op cit

68. Anglo American Corporation, for example, had substantial interest, for example

in AECI, Scaw Metals, and Union Acceptances Limited

69. S.A Reserve Bank: A statistical presentation of South Africa’s National Accounts

1945-1970, June 1971, Table 15

70. G Bloch, op cit, p. 144

71. S.A. Reserve bank, Quartlerly Bulletin, June 1973, p.77

72. M. Savage, ‘The Ownership and Control of large South African Companies’ in

South African Labour Bulletin 4. (6), 1978

73. South African Statistics, 1982, Table 7.6 and 12.60

74. This process of urbanization was facilitated in the Durban area by its proximity to

KwaZulu and resulted in the emergence of enormous squatter settlements on the

periphery of the metropolitan areas

75. Achieved primarily through the call-in card system

76. They were the National Union Textile Workers, (NUTW), the Metal and Allied

Workers’ Union, (MAWU), the Chemical Workers’ Industrial union, (CWIU), the

Transport and General Workers’ Union, (TWWU) which functioned as a general

union throughout most of the 1970s. A furniture union became defunct early on

in the decade

77. A direct comparison of strategy is blurred by the different historical conditions

78. Such as the stoppage following the death of trade unionist Neil Aggett of the

Food and Canning Workers’ Union

79. cf. the recognition agreement between the Birtish owned Smith and Nephew and

the NUTW

80. Worker Resistance in Natal, Project: Interviews, of Shopstewards in Durban;

forthcoming in S Meer’s article in SALB, Vol, 13, Nos 1 & 2, 1988

81. In S. Meer, idid

82. Namely the Paper, Wood and Allied Worker’s Union, the Glass and Allied

Workers’ Union, and sections of the Engineering and Allied Workers’ Union. On

this, cf. P. Bonner’s, “Independent Trade Unions since Wiehahn”, in S.A.L.B. Vol.

8, No. 4, 1983

83. eg. Alusaf workers earning a R1.53 minimum, Zululand Observer 15 July, 1983

84. cf. FOSATU Report, 1982, 1983, op cit. The FOSATU unions with varying

consistency put forward the following demands:

(a) no retrenchment without notice to the union,

(b) no retrenchment without full information,

(c) no retrenchment without full and negotiation on: Overtime Work, Short

Time, Transfers and Training, Voluntary Retirement, Casual Employment,

Lay-off, Protection of Contract Workers,

(d) fair retrenchment procedures including first-in-last-out severance pay and,

(e) fair practice after retrenchment. The General Workers Union also put

forward guidelines over retrenchments similar in vein to the above.

85. cf. FOSATU Report, 1983

86. cf. FOSATU Worker News, 1983 and 1984, it provides ample examples of this

struggle

87. cf. FOSATU Report, 1982, op cit, Interview with A. Temba, 1984

88. CLRRG Bus Boycott Project, 1983

89. J Keenan, “The Nature of Economic Growth in South Africa”, ASSA Seminar

Paper, 1980

90. cf. E. Webster, Cast in a Racial Mould, op cit

91. Webster, ibid, pp. 85/278

92. ibid, p. 253

93. Sitas, Formations and Struggles amongst Migrant Workers on the East Rand,

Labour, Capital and Society, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1985, J. Baskin, The Growth of a

New Worker Organ, SALB, Vol. 7, No. 8, 1982, M. Swilling, The Busses smell of

Blood: The East London Boycott, SALB, Vol. 9, 1984

94. Saul and Gelb, The Crisis in South Africa, p. 113/120.